Tuesday, February 21, 2017

Unexpected Liaisons, Mites and Bees

Mason bee with phoretic mites
Wikicommons © Orangeaurochs
We think of mites as annoying tiny parasites that cling to us and make us itch. If we see an insect covered with mites we feel sorry for it, assuming that the poor thing must be itching terribly and being weakened by the blood sucking pest. This is true in most cases, but curiously there are some exceptions. Believe it or not, some bees, wasps and beetles are perfectly happy with such companions. They bus around the little fellows from plants to nests. This earn the passengers the name of phoretic mites.

Carpenter bee (Xylocopa) with phoretic mites
Wikicommons © Gideon Pisanty
Mites and ticks are not insects. They are related to spiders, and most of them have eight legs, just like spiders. Mites are tiny; most of them are smaller than the tip of your ball point pen, so it is not surprising that we know very little about them. We would be quite surprised at the immense variety of mites and the large number of species. Many feed at the expense of animals, like the ones mentioned at the start of this piece, but many more feed on plants, fungi or bacteria.

Acarinarium of carpenter bee (Xylocopa)
Wikicommons © T. B. Fletcher (1914)

Getting back to the mites covering a bee. Little do you know that these particular kind of mites are the bee's friends to the point that the bee provides transport for them. Some bees have a small compartment or pouch on their bodies where mites can ride comfortably to the bee's nest. This organ is called an acarinarium, from the Greek word acarus (plural acari), which means mite.

It turns out that the mites feed on parasites that are prone to invade the bee's nest where she is raising a family. Thus the mite provides a valuable service to the bee which is greatly appreciated and compensated.

Some wasps have a similar mutualistic arrangement with mites and carry them to their nests. Carrion beetles transport mites to fresh carcasses. The mites feed on fly maggots, the beetle's competitors.

Potter wasp with acarinarium

Carrion beetle with phoretic mites

Monday, February 20, 2017

Spurs: Hard to Get Nectar

© Beatriz Moisset
 Many flowers are very particular about their clientele. They have developed ways to make themselves attractive to certain flower visitors while discouraging others. They do so by adopting a certain shape. The spurs of many flowers serve this purpose. A petal or a sepal develops an elongated hollow spike. This is what botanists call a spur.

Violet (Viola mirabilis). Note the spur
Wikicommons. © Antti Bilund

Violets have a spur. Nectar is collected at its bottom. A pollinator needs a tongue long enough to reach the hidden nectar waiting in this special vessel. The rest of the flower is so designed that the insect gets covered with pollen while performing this task. If it is carrying pollen from a previous flower visit, it is likely to deposit it on the stigma. Only long tongued insects can take advantage of this flower and they need to develop an efficient way to approach this specially shaped blossom. After a few times they get better and better and proceed faster. The most common pollinators of violets are small, solitary bees.

Bumble bee visiting a jewelweed blossom
© Beatriz Moisset
Jewelweed (Impatiens) also possess a spur. The flower itself is a small chamber just a little larger than a bumble bee. The petals form a curtain that slightly blocks the entrance to this chamber. Bumble bees are pros at collecting nectar from these flowers. Their plump bodies fit inside the chamber like a finger in a glove and their long and flexible tongues are suited to the curved spur.

© Beatriz Moisset

Columbines have not one but five spurs. Each petal is shaped like a long hollow horn ending on a knob. This is where the nectar gathers. Long tongued insects and hummingbirds pollinate these flowers. In most species, the flower nods or points downward, and the spurs point to the sky. This arrangement seems to be agreeable to their most common pollinators, hummingbirds.

© Beatriz Moisset
By contrast, the flowers of the alpine columbine remain erect, don't nod. They are also creamy white, a color favored by moths. And thus, they are preferably pollinated by large moths, the so called hawkmoths. A few other species of columbines, including the Colorado blue columbine, also face upwards and are also pollinated by moths.

Columbine and carpenter bee
stealing nectar
© Beatriz Moisset
Jewelweed and ants
stealing nectar
© Beatriz Moisset
This specialization has advantages but it also has some disadvantages. Not all flower visitors behave like honest pollinators. These difficult flowers are an invitation to cheating. Some visitors learn to take a shortcut, especially if their tongues aren't long enough to reach the bottom of the spur. They approach the flower from the side. Perhaps, they can smell the sweets through the walls of the spur. A quick bite or a stab through the delicate petal may be all it takes to reach the hidden food. Carpenter bees, bumble bees and even ants have been seen performing this robbery.

List of articles
Beginners Guide to Pollinators and Other Flower Visitors

© Beatriz Moisset. 2017

Sunday, February 12, 2017

Butterfly Pollination

Fritillary butterfly on butterfly weed
© Beatriz Moisset
When you mention pollinators to people, the immediate answer is: bees and butterflies. Bees, yes, the 20,000 species or so do a huge percentage of pollination. Some plants depend entirely on bees for this function. However, when it comes to butterflies, a different story emerges. Other insects, such as flies, wasps and moths are known to do a respectable amount of pollination, probably far more than butterflies do. Some of the mentioned insects are indispensable to certain plants, such as figs, cacao and yucca. Some flies are used in farming.

A great variety of pollinators and flower visitors
© Beatriz Moisset
Butterflies visit flowers but that alone doesn't make them good pollinators. They are easily noticed because of their large size and color. That is why the general public takes notice, but biologists have not paid a lot of attention to the role of butterflies as pollinators. So it would be nice to know a little more about them and how much credit they deserve.

Bumble bee on Helenium
© Beatriz Moisset

Let us compare a bumble bee with a butterfly in a field full of ragworts, for instance. Ragworts are pretty, daisy-like, rather weedy yellow flowers. A bumble bee hastily gathers pollen and nectar and moves on quickly from blossom to blossom in one plant, next it moves on to the next plant and the next, without wasting any time. It finally rushes home to feed a hungry brood with the gathered supplies. A butterfly, on the other hand, is free from family obligations. It only needs some nectar to quench its thirst so it lazily sits on a flower, unfolds its long tongue and drinks at leisure. It takes off and wanders away apparently aimlessly. Farther down it may finally land on another flower and drink some more nectar. Later on it may visit another plant a good distance from the previous ones and so on.

It is obvious that the bumble bee performs more pollination because of its diligent behavior. However, the butterfly is doing something important by transporting pollen to plants that are a good distance from each other. It is performing cross pollination and ensuring a good mixing of genes. Plants benefit from this increase in genetic diversity. Furthermore, recently researchers have learned that the pollen, stuck to a butterfly's long tongue, stays fresh for a good time and ensures this valuable pollination at a distance.

Red banded hair streak butterfly on Helenium
© Beatriz Moisset
Butterflies seem to do more pollination in tropical regions than in temperate ones. Butterflies and hummingbirds are good at finding nectar inside long-necked or trumpet shaped flowers. They are attracted by red flowers, which are rather common in the tropics. Bees are color blind to the red color and prefer yellow and blue or purple ones. Butterflies, like hummingbirds, have a good vision for the red color.

A number of flowers are completely dependent on butterflies for pollination. Some South African orchids fall in this category. Another flower dependent on a butterfly for pollination is a member of the pea family, the Peacock Flower that grows in the Caribbean.

Orange sulphur butterfly on asters
Notice the long tongue
© Beatriz Moisset

In summary, butterflies, while not the most efficient pollinators, are important, even essential, in some instances.

Also see:
Pollinator Foraging Behavior and Gene Dispersal in Senecio (Compositae) (contribute to cross pollination, farther distances than bumble bees)